Water Conservation and Treatment


Water Conservation
Energy & Carbon Footprint
Nature Education & Conservation
Cultural Heritage
Sustainable Building
Health, Safety & Pollution
Individual Lodge Case Studies


The world is facing a global water crisis with increasing demand, worsening water pollution and rising extremes in weather due to climate change bringing challenges with drought and flooding. India currently stores only 6% of its annual rainfall, relying heavily on groundwater resources. While its annual water requirement is about 3,000 billion cubic metres, the country receives an average of about 4,000 billion cubic metres of rain every year. So why doesn’t the maths add up? India fails to utilise about three quarters of the water received from the sky. The rest is lost!

More than 160 million people in India do not have access to clean water – the highest in the world. India is placed at 120 on a list of 122 countries on the basis of quality of water. Lack of access to clean drinking water is a serious public health issue. In 2018 alone, seven deaths a day in the country were attributed to polluted water.

Nepal, too, suffers from a water crisis fuelled by the indiscriminate dumping of industry, domestic waste and untreated sewage into its rivers and lakes. The 2015 earthquake further aggravated this situation by destroying water systems and networks, leaving many residents with little or no access to safe drinking water.

With tourists consuming generating a potential average consumption of up to 200 litres per day, the need to conserve and recycle water, harvest monsoon rains, and replenish groundwater is paramount. Creating water bodies will help to attract an abundance of wildlife for your guests to enjoy. Appropriate wastewater treatment not only helps to protect the pristine wilderness and the health of all who reside there but can save water through recycling for uses such as irrigation and toilet flushing.

Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals


Conserving water

Encouraging staff and guests to save water through notices is basic good practice. Monitoring water use, sub-metering and setting targets are additional ways to save water. Pictured here a notice in Mela Kothi, Chambal to encourage guests to re-use towels.

Svasara Jungle Lodge encourages its guests to reuse towels and linen as part of their approach to saving and recycling water. Read case study.

Guest communication in rooms and bathrooms at Pench Tree Lodge and other Pugdundee Safari lodges explains the need for water conservation and encourages guests to reuse towels and bed sheets

Conserving Water

Water saving notice at Paatlidun Safari Lodge

Conserving Water

Aerated taps and other aerated or low-flow faucets can save up to 75% of water used by regular versions.

Conserving Water

Dual-flush toilets, in use by numerous PUG rated lodges, are also positive for saving water. The best models use only 3-6 litres per flush compared to 10-13 litres in single flush models while still achieving equal or superior performance.


[1] State of the World’s Water 2018: The Water Gap, WaterAid

[1] Composite Water Management Index (CWMI), A national tool for water measurement, management & improvement, Amitabh Kant, Niti Aayog, 14 June 2018


Easy wins

Going for gold

See full list of water treatment and recycling tips in Resources